Limited Liability Partnership vs. Public Limited Company

Selecting the right business structure is a pivotal decision for entrepreneurs and business owners. The choice of structure significantly influences a company's legal obligations, liability, and operational framework. Two distinct business structures often considered are the Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) and the Public Limited Company (PLC). In this article, we will explore the differences between these two business entities, highlighting their unique characteristics, benefits, and implications.

Understanding Business Structures

Business structures establish the legal framework within which a company operates. The choice of structure can significantly impact various aspects of a business, including:

  • Ownership: determining who owns and controls the business entity.
  • Liability: Defining the extent to which personal assets are protected from business debts and legal issues.
  • Capital Raising: Influencing the ability to raise funds and attract investors.
  • Regulatory Obligations: Impacting the level of government oversight and reporting requirements.

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) Explained

Define Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

A Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is a hybrid business structure combining the features of a partnership and a corporation. It provides limited liability protection to its partners. LLPs are governed by the Limited Liability Partnership Act and are suitable for various professional and service-based businesses.

Characteristics and Benefits of an LLP

  1. Limited Liability

Partners enjoy limited liability, protecting their personal assets from business debts and legal obligations.

  1. Flexibility in Management

Partners have more flexibility in managing the LLP compared to the strict governance of a corporation.

  1. Taxation

LLPs offer pass-through taxation, meaning profits are taxed at the individual partner level, reducing the overall tax burden.

  1. Compliance Requirements

LLPs have fewer compliance requirements compared to PLCs, making them a cost-effective choice for small to medium-sized businesses.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • Can an LLP be formed with just one member?
    No, an LLP must have at least two designated partners at the time of registration.
  • What are the key differences between an LLP and a traditional partnership? An LLP provides limited liability to its partners, while a traditional partnership does not.
  • Are LLPs more suitable for certain industries or businesses? LLPs are often favored by professionals like lawyers, accountants, and consultants due to their liability protection and tax benefits.

Public Limited Company (PLC) Explained

Define Public Limited Company (PLC)

A public limited company (PLC) is a separate legal entity that can issue shares to the public. It is governed by the Companies Act and is suitable for larger enterprises with the goal of raising capital from a wide range of investors.

Characteristics and Benefits of a PLC

  1. Limited Liability

Shareholders enjoy limited liability, protecting their personal assets from business debts and legal obligations.

  1. Ability to Issue Shares to the Public

PLCs can raise substantial capital by offering shares to the public through stock exchanges.

  1. Separate Legal Entity

Like LLPs, PLCs are distinct legal entities, enabling them to own assets, incur debts, and enter into contracts.

  1. Regulatory Obligations

PLCs are subject to more extensive regulatory oversight, including financial reporting and disclosure requirements.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • Is it possible to change a public limited company into a private limited company?
    Yes, under specific circumstances and with regulatory approval.
  • What is the maximum paid-up share capital for a PLC?
    There is no upper limit on the paid-up share capital of a PLC.
  • Is a PLC suitable for businesses with multiple owners?
    Yes, PLCs are often chosen by larger companies with diverse ownership.

Here is a comparison table for Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) vs. Public Limited Company (PLC):


Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

Public Limited Company (PLC)

Legal status

Separate legal entity

Separate legal entity


Limited liability

Limited liability


Ownership is vested in two or more partners

Ownership is divided into shares


Managed by two or more designated partners

Managed by a board of directors

Compliance requirements

Less complex compliance requirements than a PLC

More complex compliance requirements than an LLP


Taxed as a pass-through entity

Taxed as a company


Suitable for businesses of all sizes

Suitable for medium and large businesses


Comparative Analysis

Ownership Structure

  • LLP: owned by multiple partners, with at least two designated partners.
  • PLC: Ownership typically involves numerous shareholders.

Liability of Members

  • LLP: Limited liability for partners.
  • PLC: Shareholders enjoy limited liability as well.

Ability to Issue Shares to the Public

  • LLP: cannot issue shares to the public directly.
  • PLC: Can issue shares to the public, often listed on stock exchanges.

Regulatory Obligations

  • LLP: subject to regulatory requirements but with fewer obligations compared to PLCs.
  • PLC: Subject to more extensive regulatory oversight, including financial reporting and disclosure requirements.

Management and Decision-Making

  • LLP: Partners collectively manage the business, with flexibility in management.
  • PLC: Managed by directors and shareholders, with a more structured governance framework.


  • LLP: Profits are taxed at the individual partner level.
  • PLC: Subject to corporate tax rates.

Choosing the Right Business Structure

The choice between an LLP and a PLC should align with your business objectives, capital-raising needs, and risk tolerance. Assess your long-term goals and consult legal and financial experts for guidance.

Also Read:Documents Required Before Company Incorporation for DIN Application


In summary, the choice between a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) and a Public Limited Company (PLC) is a critical decision that impacts ownership, liability, capital-raising capabilities, regulatory obligations, and management structure. Understanding the differences and benefits of each structure is essential for making an informed choice that best suits your business objectives. Seek professional advice to navigate the complexities of business structure selection and ensure that your chosen structure aligns with your goals.